Seong-Beom Parka, Hyun-Jin Kima and Hee-Jin Cheongb,*
a Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Korea Ltd., Seoul, Republic of Korea;
b Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
*Correspondence : Hee-Jin Cheong
Introduction : Precision medicine describes the customization of healthcare tailored to the individual
patient. Generally, vaccines are considered as public health tools rather than from the individual patient perspective. However, adult vaccination programs in particular should consider many different factors, at the individual level and also from societal, cultural and country-specific perspectives. Currently, most immunization programs, including those for pneumococcal vaccines, have only been adopted on the basis of age or medical risk.
Areas covered : Based on a broad literature search, this review addresses possible environmental factors which can affect the burden of pneumococcal disease and the immune response to pneumococcal vaccines.
Expert opinion : Factors which influence the incidence of pneumococcal disease and the reaction against pneumococcal vaccination, including personal conditions, geographic/ethnic factors and social risks, are diverse. To maximize the effects of pneumococcal vaccination, not only for public health but also to induce optimal effects at the individual level, vaccines need to be verified under diverse situations and with collaboration among relevant medical societies, governments, and the pharmaceutical industry. Whereas vaccines are generally considered only from the public health perspective, flexible, comprehen-sive and tailored pneumococcal immunization programs, with appropriate policy support, can generate a greater positive impact on public health.
KEYWORDS: Environmental factors, PCV13, pneumococcal vaccine, pneumovax, PPSV23, prevnar