The use of a variety of RNA molecules, including messenger RNA, small interfering RNA, and microRNA, has shown great potential for prevention and therapy of many pathologies. However, this therapeutic promise has historically been limited by short in vivo half-life, lack of targeted delivery, and safety issues. Nanoparticle (NP)-mediated delivery has been a successful platform to overcome these limitations, with multiple formulations already in clinical trials and approved by the FDA. Although there is a diversity of NPs in terms of material formulation, size, shape, and charge that have been proposed for biomedical applications, specific modifications are required to facilitate sufficient RNA delivery and adequate therapeutic effect. This includes optimization of (i) RNA incorporation into NPs, (ii) specific cell targeting, (iii) cellular uptake and (iv) endosomal escape ability. In this review, we summarize the methods by which NPs can be modified for RNA delivery to achieve optimal therapeutic effects.