Eun-Ha Kima,1, Ba Wool Leeb,1, Byeol Ryub,1, Hyo Moon Chob, Se-Mi Kimd, Seung-Gyu Janga, Mark Anthony B. Casela,d, Rare Rollona,d, Ji-Seung Yood, Haryoung Pooc, Won Keun Ohb, Young Ki Choia,d
aCollege of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, 28644, Republic of Korea
bKorea Bioactive Natural Material Bank, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea
cInfectious Disease Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
dCenter for Study of Emerging and Re-emerging Viruses, Korea Virus Research Institute, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon, 34126, Republic of Korea
Corresponding authors: Won Keun Oh, Young Ki Choi
1These authors contributed equally to this work.
Although several vaccines and antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are currently available, control and prevention of COVID-19 through these interventions is limited due to inaccessibility and economic issues in some regions and countries. Moreover, incomplete viral clearance by ineffective therapeutics may lead to rapid genetic evolution, resulting in the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants that may escape the host immune system as well as currently available COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we report that phytochemicals extracted from Chlorella spp. and Psidium guajava possess broad-spectrum antiviral activity against a range of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Through chromatography-based screening, we identified four bioactive compounds and subsequently demonstrated their potential antiviral activities in vivo. Interestingly, in hACE2 mice, treatment with these compounds significantly attenuates SARS-CoV-2-induced proinflammatory responses, demonstrating their potential anti-inflammatory activity. Collectively, our study suggests that phytochemicals from edible plants may be readily available therapeutics and prophylactics against multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains and variants.