Rationale: Approximately 30-40% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (BC) cases recur after tamoxifen therapy. Thus, additional studies on the mechanisms underlying tamoxifen resistance and more specific prognostic biomarkers are required. In this study, we investigated the role of the SET domain containing 1A (SETD1A), a histone H3-lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase, in the development of tamoxifen resistance in BC.
Methods: The relationship between tamoxifen resistance and SETD1A protein level was investigated using resistant cell lines derived from the parent BC cells. Biochemical and molecular assays, such as RNA-sequencing, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, chromatin-immunoprecipitation, and protein-binding assays, were used to identify the SETD1A target gene in tamoxifen-resistant BC cells. Additionally, the role of SETD1A in cancer stem cells (CSCs) was investigated using CSCs isolated from tamoxifen-resistant BC cells. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis and immunofluorescence staining using clinical datasets and tissue microarray were performed to determine the correlation between the expression of the SETD1A-SRY-box transcription factor 2 (SOX2) pair and recurrence in tamoxifen-treated patients with BC.
Results: SETD1A was expressed at higher levels in tamoxifen-resistant BC cells than in primary BC cells. Notably, SETD1A-depleted tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 cells showed restored sensitivity to tamoxifen, whereas SETD1A overexpression in MCF-7 cells resulted in decreased sensitivity. SETD1A is recruited to the SOX2 gene via its interaction with SOX2, thereby enhancing the expression of SOX2 genes in tamoxifen-resistant BC cells. The growth of tamoxifen-resistant cells and CSCs was effectively suppressed by SETD1A knockdown. In addition, high levels of SETD1A and SOX2 were significantly correlated with a low survival rate in patients with ER-positive tamoxifen-resistant BC.
Conclusion: Our findings provide the first evidence of the critical role of the SETD1A-SOX2 axis in tamoxifen-resistant BC cells, implying that SETD1A may serve as a molecular target and prognostic indicator of a therapeutic response in patients with tamoxifen-resistant BC.