Lipids are crucial components of cellular function owing to their role in membrane formation, intercellular signaling, energy storage, and homeostasis maintenance. In the brain, lipid dysregulations have been associated with the etiology and progression of neurodegeneration and other neurological pathologies. Hence, brain lipids are emerging as important potential targets for the early diagnosis and prognosis of neurological diseases. This review aims to highlight the significance and usefulness of lipidomics in diagnosing and treating brain diseases. We explored lipid alterations associated with brain diseases, paying attention to organ-specific characteristics and the functions of brain lipids. As the recent advances in brain lipidomics would have been impossible without advances in analytical techniques, we provide up-to-date information on mass spectrometric approaches and integrative analysis with other omic approaches. Last, we present the potential applications of lipidomics combined with artificial intelligence techniques and interdisciplinary collaborative research for treating brain diseases with clinical heterogeneities.