Song-Yi Yang1†, A Ruem Han2,3†, Ji-Won Choi3, Kwang-Mahn Kim3 and Jae-Sung Kwon2,3*
1Department of Dental Hygiene, Konyang University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
2Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Republic of Korea
3Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea
†Song-Yi Yang, A Ruem Han contributed equally to this work.
*Correspondence: Jae-Sung Kwon
Background: White Portland cement is a calcium silicate material. It exhibits antibacterial properties and is biocompatible. In addition, calcium silicate-based materials are known to release calcium ions and form apatite. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel bioactive restorative resin composite with antibacterial and apatite forming properties to prevent tooth caries at the interface of teeth and restorative materials, by incorporation of hydrated calcium silicate (hCS) derived from white Portland cement.
Methods: To prepare the experimental composite resins, a 30 wt% light-curable resin matrix and 70 wt% filler, which was mixed with hCS and silanized glass powder were prepared in following concentrations: 0, 17.5, 35.0, and 52.5 wt% hCS filler. The depth of cure, flexural strength, water sorption, solubility, and antibacterial effect were tested. After immersion in artificial saliva solution for 15, 30, 60, and 90 days, ion concentration by ICP-MS and apatite formation using SEM-EDS, Raman spectroscopy and XRD from experimental specimens were analyzed.
Results: All experimental groups showed clinically acceptable depths of cure and flexural strength for the use as the restorative composite resin. Water sorption, solubility, released Ca and Si ions increased with the addition of hCS to the experimental composite resin. Experimental groups containing hCS showed greater antibacterial effects compared with the 0 wt% hCS filler group (p < 0.05). The 52.5 wt% hCS filler group produced precipitates mainly composed of Ca and P detected as hydroxyapatite after immersion in artificial saliva solution for 30, 60, and 90 days.
Conclusions: This results show that composite resins containing hCS filler is effective in antibacterial effects. hCS has also apatite formation ability for reducing gap size of microleakage by accumulating hydroxyapatite precipitates at the restoration-tooth interface. Therefore, novel composite resin containing hCS is promising bioactive resin because of its clinically acceptable physiochemical properties, antibacterial properties, and self-sealing potential for prevention of microleakage for longer usage of restorations.